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What we see: the „ISS-NASA-Object“ – Who tells us what it „is“: NASA! – Do we understand what it really is?


Understanding the „ISS-NASA-Object“

As the Wikipedia-article „International Space Station“
tells us in the paragraph „Sightings from Earth„:

„The ISS is visible to the naked eye as a slow-moving, bright white dot because of reflected sunlight, and can be seen in the hours after sunset and before sunrise, when the station remains sunlit but the ground and sky are dark.“

We compare the „ISS-NASA-Object“ with an airplane at 10 km altitude

To understand something new one looks for a comparison with something known. What we know very well is the picture of airplanes at 10 or 12 km altitude as tiny points in the sky with two or more trains of gasses behind them dissolving gradually. The reason to compare the „ISS-NASA-Object“ with an airplane is the roughly same dimension of their pictures to the terrestrial observer: the „ISS-NASA-Object“ appears to be even somewhat bigger than the airplane, but here we do consider only the order of magnitude: they are the same.

Fortunately we know from common information sources and from our own observation on airports‘ fields the dimensions of modern airplanes to be about 80-100 meters in diameter, consequently in the order of magnitude of 100 meter. From Wikipedia we have the NASA information that also the „ISS“ has a diameter of 100 meter calculated roughly. We consider it to be a happy coincidence that both objects of our comparison have the same order of magnitude : 100 meter. For our consideration we do not need the exact measurements, because the order of magnitude of the objects is sufficient for our conclusions.

The great difference: the distances of the objects to the observer and between themselves

The distance of the airplane is about 10-12 km altitude. The distance of the „ISS-NASA-Object“ from Earth is – following to NASA – about 400 km. So according to official data the distance between the two objects is about 390 km.

This brings us to the conclusion, that 2 objects with the same diameter of about 100 meter and 390000 meter distant from each other cannot give pictures of the same dimension to the observer on Earth. Conseqently the „ISS-NASA-Object“ is not the „ISS“ 400 km away as claimed by NASA.

This result is not a proof against manned space travel, but against a dirty trick of NASA to talk the public into believing in „ISS“ and manned space travel in general: telling them that they can see the „ISS“ with the naked eye and producing a type of satellite with very low orbit to be shown to the people as „proof“ of the existence of a pretended „ISS“. The unsuspecting fans of space travel are taken for a ride by NASA abusing their great trust into national authorities: these poor people haven’t understood anything. „Seeing with my own eyes“ can be the greatest deception if it is not accompanied by a critical conscience about realities.

Important question: can the „ISS“ be visible from Earth at all?

Since NASA claims that „The ISS is visible to the naked eye as a slow-moving, bright white dot“ (see Wikipedia), and since we know from other experiences with NASA-data that this „national body“ is not trustworthy at all as shown by the above proof about the „ISS-NASA-Object“, we doubt even Nasa’s claim of visibility for the pretended „ISS“, and we will give it a thorough check.

This time a consideration of only the order of magnitude is not sufficient, we must instead consider the exact measurements because there will be a close outcome.

For the understanding of the situation we had prepared a sketch for our German article on the same subject, which we can use also here. At first we will explain the sketch in English.

Grafik - Flugzeug - ISS -fertig - def 02

What the sketch is showing

The sketch is not true to scale. It shows

– the position of the observer in A;
– the positions of the airplane („Flugzeug“) and the „ISS“ in their distances from the Earth: 10 and 400 km;
– airplane and „ISS“ have the same diameter: 100 meter; their diameter is the height of the objects observed;
– the observer (A), the lower and the upper ends of the objects‘ diameters (lower ends: B, C; upper ends: E, D) form 2 right triangles, ABE and ACD, with the right angles at B and C;
– the 2 vision angles at A for both objects.

The sketch shows additions to the first proof

Firstly, we see in this sketch that the 2 vision angles at A for the airplane (BAE) and the vision angle at A for the „ISS“ (CAD) are extremely different. This is the geometric expression for the conclusion, two objects of the same diameter and in great distance from one another cannot give pictures of the same dimension.

Further proof of the unreality of the „ISS-NASA-Object“

Secondly, the sketch gives the further proof, that it is impossible to find a place for the supposed „ISS-NASA-Object“ in this sketch. With its observed and its maintained properties (effective size of its picture like an airplane, pretended distance 400 km) it is in contrast to the reality as everyone can perceive it.

Could you find a place for the „ISS-NASA-Object“ in our sketch?

Visibility of a supposed „ISS“ in 400 km distance

But the main purpose of this sketch is to check the assertion of visibility of the „ISS“ from earth by the naked eye. The visibility fundamentally depends on the relation between diameter of the object and its distance from the observer.

We consider the right triangle ACD connecting observer and the ends of the „ISS“ diameter, with the right angle at C. For the vision angle at A the diameter CD is the opposite side of the triangle; and the distance AC is the adjacent leg.

For right triangles there are three main trigonometric ratios, one of them is the ratio of the opposite to the adjacent, called tangent. In our case the ratio of diameter to the distance is the tangent of the vision angle at A.

From the tangent one can derive the angle at A in angle minutes and angle seconds, but for our case this would result in extremely small measurements of the angle like the tangent itself and would not explain anything more than the tangent can do. Moreover we will find the data about the resolution of the human eye being given also in the typical relation diameter:distance (which is the tangent of the vision angle), so that any complex calculation from tangent to angle minutes and seconds is not needed.

In the case of the presumed „ISS“ seen from earth as given in the sketch, the relation of diameter to distance is the tangent of the vision angle at A (DAC):
tangent = 100:400000 = 1:4000 = 0.00025

Maximum angular resolution of the human eye

To collect information about the resolution of the human eye we consult the Wikipedia article „Visual acuity“ (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_acuity). This article gives the following informations relevant for our purpose:

„The maximum angular resolution of the human eye at a distance of 1 km is typically 30 to 60 cm. This gives an angular resolution of between 0.02 and 0.03 degrees, which is roughly 1.2–1.8 arc minutes per line pair, which implies a pixel spacing of 0.6–0.9 arc minutes.[15][16] „

For the possible resolution two measurements are given characterizing the bandwidth of the average:

(A) 30 cm diameter on distance of 1 km;
1 km = 1000 m = 100000 cm
The tangent is: 30:100000 = 3:10000 = 0.0003

(B) 60 cm diameter on distance of 1 km;
The tangent is: 60:100000 = 6:10000 = 0.0006

Later on the same article gives the following numeric example for a vision angle of 1 arc minute because it is common knowledge that 1 arc minute is the average resolution of the human eye: „to discriminate two contours separated by 1 arc minute – 1.75 mm at 6 meters.“
6 meters = 600 cm = 6000 mm
The tangent is: 1.75 : 6000 = 0.000291

For our German article on this subject we collected the following examples of numbers of diameters and distances from different internetpages to characterize the average resolution of the naked eye:

(1) 2.91 cm diameter from 100 meter distance: 1 arc minute.
The tangent: 2.91:10000 = 0.000291
(German Wikipedia: „Winkelminute“)

(2) 1 meter diameter from 3440 meter distance: 1 arc minute.
The tangent: 1:3440 = 0.0002906
(German Wikipedia: „Winkelminute“)

(3) The resolution of 1 arc minute corrisponds to a resolution of 1.5 mm diameter at 5 meter distance.
5 meter = 500 cm = 5000 mm.
The tangent: 1.5:5000 = 0.0003

(4) Man (Fovea): 0.4 arc minute to 2.0 arc minute (1 arc minute = 3 cm at 100 m)
100 meter = 10000 cm.
The tangent: 3:10000 = 0.0003

As we can see the English and German sources for the maximum angular resolution of the naked eye are in agreement and give 1 arc minute or a tangent of 0.0003.

The tangent of the „ISS“-100-Meter/400km is lower than the resolution: we could not see the „ISS“

The Wikipedia article „Visual acuity“ gives for the standard resolution of the naked eye a bandwidth of 0.0003 to 0.0006 for the tangent. From this we conclude that the average person will have a resolution about 0.00045 tangent.

Since NASA claims the visibility of its „ISS“ for the average person, it is evident that the „ISS-100-Meter/400km“ tangent with 0.00025 lies definitely under the resolution of the eye of the average person and consequently the „ISS“ would not be visible.

Even if NASA would claim the visibility only for persons with the maximum resolution possible of an tangent = 0.0003 the „ISS“ with 0.00025 tangent would remain invisible.

Since we know that following to NASA the „ISS“ orbit supposedly varies between 350 and 450 km altitude we have to calculate the case of the lower orbit with 350 km altitude:
The ratio of diameter:distance gives the tangent:
100:350000 = 1: 3500 = 0.000285
Also this scenario does not provide data for the visibility of the „ISS“ for the naked human eye.

Summary of NASA’s „ISS“ pretensions

NASA has deceived their fans about their capability to see an object with diameter 100 meter from 400 km distance. And NASA has cheated the space travel fans about the character of this „ISS-NASA-Object“ to be the pretended „ISS“.

We have presented our proofs for these statements on 5. June 2018 in our German article (of which the present article is a summary in English):
„Ich habe die ISS doch selbst gesehen!“
We are now waiting for any comment or criticism from our readers.

Our intention to check NASA’s claims about the visibility of the pretended „ISS“ and the identity of their „ISS-NASA-Object“ as „the ISS“ arose from the knowledge of two proofs against manned space flight: no re-entry and no protection against radiation.

(1) No Re-entry

There would be no „re-entry“ to the planet from the supposed cosmic velocities (8000 m/sec or 11000 m/sec) with kinetic energies of some 100 Gigajoule because of lacking enough fuel to slow down the space ship to zero m/sec. For this reason there have never been any manned space flights above 100 km altitude. And also for this same reason they have never brought back a satellite from his orbit down to earth: the laws of physics work for the unmanned space flight as well. (Why didn’t they never bring back one satellite if they pretend to bring back safely all the time humans from the ISS?)

The proof has been given on the pages of Anders Björkman since 2012, generally for every maintained space flight over the Karman Line (100 km) and especially extensively for the alleged APOLLO 11 flight (1969) by analyzing the NASA data about fuel consumption in each phase of the „flight“ on his internet site:
The Human Space Travel Hoaxes 1959-2016
In permanent revision and supplementing. We published a summary of his chapter 2 in German:
Der APOLLO-11-Elefant – eine deutsche Premiere – 22. Nov. 2016

(2) No protection against radiation

There would be no protection against the cosmic radiation in space. All NASA’s „radiation data“ for any alleged space flight above 100 km altitude (the Karman line) are pure invention and fantasy and simple lies. NASA maintains the radiation dose for the „ISS“ in 400 km altitude to be 12 microsievert per hour:

NASA. International Space Station Internal Radiation Monitoring. 24.9.2015 – (http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1043.html)

while the average radiation dose for an intercontinental flight at 12 km altitude from Europe to the USA is known to be 11 microsievert per hour. See pp. 50-51 of our study:

Mit 1,8 Millisievert zum Mond und zurück
oder Die bemannte Raumfahrt im Licht der kosmischen Strahlung – 2016

To maintain the same radiation dose for an „ISS“ as for the intercontinental flight is simply silly. These lies function with the public only because of general silence and disinformation about cosmic radiation in the mass media worldwide since about 1962. In Germany the last realistic report about cosmic radiation and the danger to human space flight appeared in:

DER SPIEGEL. Nr. 34, 16.8.1961, S. 54-56: Raumfahrt – Tödliche Sonne – Strahlen-Gefahr. (http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/print/d-43365671.html)

NASA can manage their silly lies only through commanding the mainstream media to fill their programs with the photoshopped fotos, photographic artifacts and computer generated images (cgi) of rocket starts, space ships flying und astronots walking outside their space ships in „space“ and sometimes ejecting bubbles of air from their „space suits“ because these fotos are made from the astronots as divers in a water basin (at Moscow or somewhere else) to get the impression of „floating“ through space and their space ship „ISS“. And as a nice detail we see these air bubbles go always vertically upwards like on earth – even in space! So we know where these photos have been taken.

Further articles about human space travel on this blog

We try to communicate the criticism on space travel also to the English speaking readers because we have the impression that the lack of criticism on space travel is general and common for all regions of the world. The few existing pages with criticism have been centered for too long exclusively on the interpretation of NASA’s photographs, especially those from the „moon“; but the criticism has to be widened to the physical and technical realities of any „human space travel“: these space travel realities are zero, the hoax is gigantic and the longest enduring deception known until today.

We can offer only few articles in English

Manned Space Travel, the short version (1): 5 questions, 5 answers -Example # 1: APOLLO 11 – 1.1.2017

Manned Space Travel, the short version (2): 6 questions, 6 answers –
Example # 2: ISS in cosmic radiation – 26.4.2017

Information about our Open Letter to Pope Francis of 12. October 2017 – 15.12.2017

German article with citations in English:
Kriegen schwarze Mäuse auch auf der ISS ein graues Fell? – 21.2.2018
With citations from English language website:
Space Safety Magazine, 25. März 2014
„Rats … Cosmic Radiation Turns Hair Grey!“
By moonandback on March 25, 2014

„Rats … Cosmic Radiation Turns Hair Grey!“ – 13.6.2018
Text of 2 emails of 18.2.2018 to a magazine and the author of a very interesting article (previously published on this blog in the article: Kriegen schwarze Mäuse auch auf der ISS ein graues Fell?)

Articles in German

We point out only 3 articles reporting arguments only rarely or never discussed somewhere else.

NASA-Raumschiff ORION: Airbus baut Service-Modul für 200 Millionen – 15.3.2017
Reports Siegfried Marquardt’s calculations of cosmic radiation doses from 4 different particle counting measurements of physics. This way to use physical particle counting measurements in different space environments to specify the radiation danger for humans produces very impressive data pictures which NASA always tried to hide from the public, since the sixties until today.

[Anmerkung v. 15.8.2020:
Siegfried Marquardts Untersuchung
„Die ganze Wahrheit über die Apollolüge“
kann als pdf-Datei ab sofort in 2 Ausgaben von 2009 und 2019 von der Downloadseite dieses Blogs heruntergeladen werden. URL der Downloadseite:
https://balthasarschmitt.wordpress.com/eine-seite/downloads/ ]

After these 4 examples of calculations we can ask the NASA managers about forthcoming „space flight missions“: „How many elementary particles (e.g. protons, electrons etc.) per square centimeter and second and with which energy per particle do you expect and to which radiation dose do they add up?“

Ein Analog-Astronaut in Österreich – der einzige echte Astronaut überhaupt! – 31.3.2017
Based on a report in the German newspaper „Süddeutsche Zeitung“ about a quite bizarre personality in Austria, Gernot Grömer, who has decided to become an „analogous astronaut“. He knows that he will never get a seat in the space ship to Mars, therefore he is eager to be an „analogous astronot“, as he calls himself. Staying here on earth, he prepares himself for a space trip, he creates a space suit, he goes to training camps for astronauts and gathers a crew of volunteers who help him in his activities. The whole case would not be worth reporting if not NASA and ESA were supporting these activities, they invite him to give conferences and so on. May be this „analogous astronaut“ will remain an Austrian curiosity but the recognition by the space agencies is a sign that they have understood that they must take control of this event; perhaps they fear this role of „analogous astronaut“ may be understood as sign of doubts about space travel? Mr. Grömer has even startet to train other persons as „analogous astronauts“. Internet searches for the German and the English version of this new „profession“ show only few items.

Die Raumfahrt in die Kosmische Strahlung hinein – die 14 Tricks der Desinformation – 10.4.2017
Enumerates 14 tricks which objectively are hindrances for the public to understand cosmic radiation data:
– partly they originate from historic development with changing the unities for measurements;
– partly they originate from using older traditional unities instead of the modern internationally accepted unities;
– partly they originate from using totally different time periods for dose data: who in the general public can compare „millisievert per year“ with „microsievert per hour“?
– partly they originate from the fact that different radiation types have different effects on the human body: the power of certain radiation types must be multiplied (with a factor up to 20) to be comparable to other types of radiation, which results in the „equivalent dose“ of a certain radiation.

We don’t know of any internet page where these topics would be pointed out in English as a problem of public understanding.


This article is a summary in English of our German article with several additions:
„Ich habe die ISS doch selbst gesehen!“ – 5.6.2018

B., 25. Juni 2018

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